The BIG question people are asking this week: What’s with those Russian threats again?

5 02 2008

This is the first episode of our new, lighter, column ‘The BIG question people are asking this week’, in which we will not exactly translate the news like we do, but analyse and/or synthesise and/or explain and/or (most likely) comment the things people in Poland are getting excited about in the media, and generally.

The big question people are asking this week is

What’s with those Russian threats again?

Russia’s representative to NATO Dmitriy Rogozin warned Poland this week, saying he ‘would like to remind his Polish colleagues of their recent history, which proves that positioning Poland on the confrontation line have always brought tragedy to them’ and he continued saying ‘that’s how Poland lost one third of her population during the Second World War.’

That’s not exactly the kind of language you would expect from a diplomat, is it? But that’s Russia for you. Is this a suggestion they would attack Poland like they did on 17th September 1939 collaborating with Hitler?

Two days later the chairman of foreign affairs committee at the Russian Duma Konstantin Kosachov was kind enough to make such a statement, ‘certain American installations will be becoming an object of control, and, at worst, targets’.

Of course what they both are talking about is the anti-missile shield scheme, elements of which are planned to be installed in Poland, and which is thought to be able to shoot missiles down when they’re still in the air, and prevent them hitting America, and – maybe (this is not clear yet) – some other places as well.

Why would Russia oppose a DEFENSIVE system, anyone? Any ideas? Not to protect their own citizens, as this has always been the least worry there…

Frankly they’re not doing themselves a favour here – if they really don’t want the American anti-missile shield elements installed in Poland. Most people, including me, were not in favour of this anti-missile project. But hearing such threats from time to times makes me, and many other people, twice more cautious about Russia and twice more eager to tighten cooperation with Western allies, in case Russian enlightened leadership actually decided attack us militarily. Will Russia ever change? Will Russia ever become a normal, democratic, friendly country governed by the rule of law?


If you enjoyed this post why not visit Polandian, a collaborative blog on Poland.

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We razed a city to ruins. I’m sorry. Would you like more tea?

18 01 2008

Author: Dorota Wodecka-Lasota
Source: Gazeta Wyborcza – January 16th 2008

* * *

Romek, 28-year-old from Poland, goes on a personal quest to Germany to talk to soldiers fighting against the 1944 Warsaw Uprising and hear their story.

28-year-old Romuald lives with his parents near Opole. He’s a children’s stories’ author and gets his works published by a small literary publishing house. On weekends he works part-time in a delivery firm, handling larger parcels.
In 2004 his girlfriend gave him the Chronicle of the Warsaw Uprising as a present. He had never been in Warsaw before. The book gripped him.
‘But what it was missing was the story as Germans see it. I searched in libraries and in internet – but I haven’t found anything. Then I thought – since historians didn’t find anything – I will‘ , says Romek. ‘Why? I don’t know why. I just wanted to know’.

1944In 1989 a small Munich publishing house issued ‘Warschauer Aufstand’, containing a list of German soldiers fighting the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, together with their military rank and, where applicable, date of death. The low circulation publication received much attention from historians, who alarmed that there were many inconsistencies and errors. Germans protested too. Some of those included in the book have never been to Warsaw. Some were declared dead by the book, while they still were alive and well. Under the threat of court action, publisher withdrew the 3000 copies from bookshops.

Romek managed to find the publication with help of a friend in Berlin. Another friend, IT specialist, searched the internet to find out who, from that list, is still alive. In Germany personal information is not protected. After ruling out those who passed away, 42 people were left.

2000sRomek contacted them last summer holiday: six agreed to meet with him. On weekends, as Romek was busy with work on weekdays.

However, he shouldn’t have bothered visiting three of the six.
Johann said he’s never been to Poland. Joseph’s been in Poland twice – to do shopping in a border-town. Heinrich, on the other hand, was talking about the fights on Warsaw’s Triple Crosses Square like he was reciting a story learned by heart. He received Romek in his entrance hall and wouldn’t even let him ask the firt question. ‘I regret I agreed for this meeting. In your country this rising is a national myth, and whatever I’d say your Polish propaganda will transform my words so that Germans seem like pigs. That’s how you do it’, he said, asking Romek to leave.

Erich in Thuringia, next on the list, told Romek he’d arrived in Warsaw after the end of the uprising – on October 4th 1944. We was eighteen. ‘We worked in a brigade, which for seven-eight hours a day walked around with flamethrowers and burned down the ruins’, he recalls.

Old Town Market Square - 1944He was surprised they were ordered to burn what was already burned. The petrol they were supposed to use wasn’t the right quality either. Townhouses woldn’t burn easily. After work they went back to Mokotów district, where they lived several soldiers in one room. They felt safe there: the gates to German-controlled part of the city were guarded by 50 German soldiers.

Yet everyday they drank spirit. One friend of his couldn’t cope with this work. He poured petrol over himself and set himself on fire.

Prudential BuldingWhen Erich watched Polanski’s Pianist on tv, things came back to him. ‘It wasn’t at all as showed in this movie. Many people lived in ruins – not only Szpilman. Several hundred at least’, he convinced. ‘They walked out at night. I saw them, when we went out to the ruins, driven by curiosity, once. We saw how they pull burned potatoes from cellars. There were no orders to shoot at these people’.

Today he is ashamed of what he then called a good fun, ‘We razed a city to ruins. I’m sorry’, he says, ‘would you like more tea’?


First day each month at 10 we received our soldier’s pay. August the 1st wasn’t therefore the best time for an attack, as by 5 pm we were at least a bit drunk‘ – says Romek’s next interlocutor – Dieter. Romek visited him on the outskirts of Berlin. He didn’t want to say much though. He was a marksman near Teatralny Square. He wouldn’t say how many times his shot was well-aimed, but there are diplomas for marksmanship, he received before the war, hanging on the wall. Dieter is not making an effort to be polite, he murmurs… maybe because partisans killed seven of his colleagues? – ‘Eight of us walked, and then these people approached us wearing German uniforms. They started shooting when we were very close. I ran away. I survived this war’.

When Romek wants to know whether Dieter has any souvenirs from Warsaw, Dieter browses through his drawers nervously. Some papers fall on the floor. ‘When you fight for your life you don’t think about souvenirs’, he says nervously, holding postcards in his hands. ‘Have them, take them for historical documentation, it has no worth to me. There were twelve in that series, but I’ve sent four to friends. Good bye’, he cuts the chat short.

Eight postcards feature ruins of Warsaw: Krasiński Square, Królewska St., Piłsudskiego St., Nowy Świat, Krakowskie Przedmieście and Wierzbowa St. Ruins and cinders. One postcard signed “famine” features people in the street, bending over a dead horse’s body trying cut out some meat. This is the only postcard series with ruins of Warsaw issued during the war.
‘I don’t think this German man wanted to pay some historical debt giving me these postcards. He just wanted to get rid of me quick‘, – Romek was unimpressed.

Romek had been meeting up with Germans fighting the Warsaw Uprising for six consecutive weekends. The last meeting was to take place in Munich. He drove there without faith, with the feeling of senseless of what he was doing. ‘No one really wanted to talk. I had met elderly men blundered between memories. Jürgen was the oldest, he was 102, therefore I didn’t expect him to tell me anything of historical value or emotional weight. That he’d help me understand those Germans. And my meeting with him was so surreal. I felt like I found myself within that poem about SS-soldier sipping tea from the last cup left in once piece in Dresden’.
Jürgen received him in his library with oak parquet flooring. Mahogany bar in one corner, samovar with orange-flavoured tea in other. Bookcase covering the whole wall hosting pre-war editions of Goethe, Schiller and atlases. Massive desk stands next to the window. Jürgen, wearing a shirt and a waistcoat, is not sitting behind it – but in an armchair next to the steaming samovar. Romek feels a bit out of place with his T-shirt in this bourgeois interior. He’s comforted when he notices Jürgen’s old fluffy slippers.

Jürgen says he’d been in Warsaw several times. He used to spend his days-off there. He was stationed in Poznan, his friends used to go to the seaside. But he travelled to Warsaw and walked around with a camera.

‘The city was in psychosis. People were terrified of the Germans. They didn’t want to pose to the pictures. When I started making photos, suddenly all people around me were gone. Just a building and nothing more. It was different in Kraków, there was no fear. People made me pictures when I asked them’, Jürgen recalls.

The photos from Kraków were gone. Out of twenty suitcases he packed, only four survived the chaos of war. He’s also lost the photographs he’d made in Warsaw’s ghetto, in Gdynia, Gdańsk and Łódź. Romek finds it hard to sympathise with this high Wehrmacht officer’s, loss. And when he’s asked to pass a beige photoalbum entitled “Reise nach Warschau”, Romek notices “Mein Kampf” from 1939 on a bookshelf.

‘I felt shivers going down my spine when I saw it’, says Romek, ‘then I froze in my armchair’.

Jürgen opened the diary documenting his first stay in Warsaw in August 1st/2nd 1941. Each photo is described, some with personal notes.

Leafing through page by page.. the bridges, Saski Palace, main train station, his portrait with Wierzbowa St. in the background, then some photos from the ghetto – at the sight of which Jürgen raises his voice:

‘Jews perceive themselves as victims of war – but they are not victims, they are perpetrators!’ – he says irritated, and goes on telling a story of how a Jew cheated his father before the war in a real-estate transaction.
Jürgen is so loud, his grandson shows up at the door to check what’s happening. And stays there leaning against door frame, to listen to the rest of the story.

Romek tries to change the subject. They return to uprising. Jürgen was in Warsaw in the moment of outbreak and worked in an administrative building on Krakowskie Przedmieście – and during the three weeks he spent in Warsaw only once he saw young people with white and red armbands.

‘I never walked out in uniform, although it was forbidden. And I never carried weapon. Therefore no one paid attention to me. Because I was afraid. But not when I heard gunshots somewhere – then I knew that since the fights are there, I am safe where I am’, he says.

‘But Poles were barbarians. My friend’s son died during the uprising. His body was found naked, completely naked! How could they deprive him of intimacy like that?’ – Jürgen raises his voice again, while Romek is thinking about the people in Auchwitz and Jews transported from his home-town Opole to Czech Terezin.
Romek explains: ‘I didn’t want to engage in discussion. I didn’t want to persuade him, to convert him. Because this man lived for 102 years and it was unlikely he’d change at the end of his way’, says Romek.

He asked for more tea. Jürgen’s hand was firm, and there was not a sign of shaking. He stood up, and came to the window smoking his pipe. Grandson stood at the door. Romek broke the silence asking if he could buy this photo-album. He was able to pay 250 euro – for which Jürgen agreed, although his grandson thought the photographs are worth 400.

Then he opened a desk drawer and took out a full pack of Warsaw’s gingerbread cookies from 1941, a German eagle with a sign in German “Souvenir from Warsaw”, and five menus from Warsaw’s restaurants. ‘I’d go back to Warsaw for the food – it was absolutely superb’. We talked for three hours, and then he said he was tired.

* * *

Please note that the pictures used in this blog to illustrate this topic are not the ones made by Jurgen.

Interested in Warsaw Uprising? Here are some links
CNN Presents Classroom Edition: Forgotten Soldiers
warsawuprising.com
The Warsaw Rising Museum
Norman Davies Rising ’44


If you enjoyed this post why not visit Polandian, a collaborative blog on Poland.





Poland will not return priceless art works to Germany

6 08 2007

Source: Gazeta Wyborcza 4-5 August 2007
Author: Bartosz T. Wieliński in Berlin
Translation from Polish for this blog: MoPoPressReview

* * *

For over a week the Polish and German media have been heating up the debate over German art works, that Poland acquired after the Second World War. It is for instance the so called ‘Berlinka’: the collection of old prints and manuscripts (by Goethe, Beethoven and Mozart, inter alia), and a collection of aircrafts from the beginnings of air travel. During the war the Germans relocated them to Silesia region, where after 1945 they were found by Polish authorities, gaining control over the Recovered Territories.

Since 1992 their return is being negotiated. Today Warsaw refuses to return them saying that these collections are a compensation for the Polish works of art destroyed during the war by the Germans. Polish experts estimate these losses at 20 billion dollars.

Last Friday the German Frankurter Allgemeine Zeitung daily wrote, that Polish stubbornness is unlawful, and reminded that Poland had broken off the talks in 2005. FAZ called the German government to be more firm in demanding the return of their national treasures. Later the German press referred to these works of ar as “loot” or “hostages”. Yesterday Anna Fotyga, the Polish Foreign Affairs Minister, called these remarks a “Cold War relic”. While the Polish Government’s Plenipotentiary for the Polish-German relations said that these claims made by Germany are ‘a defeat of the peculiarly understood reconciliation, forced by the scriptwriters of the Polish foreign policy in the early nineties.’

INTERVIEW
with Prof. Tono Eitel, German diplomat and main negotiator of the return of the German art works

Bartosz T. Wieliński: Why do the Germans call Berlinka a “loot”? Poland did not steal it.
Toto Eitel: I don’t see anything wrong with that. When as a result of war some goods are taken oven and relocated, they are called loot. Berlinka is a “looted art”. There also exists another term “stolen art” – but this applies to the works of art that the Germans have stolen from Poland during the war.
No one had stolen Berlinka or the collection of air crafts. Poles have found them on the lands granted to Poland after the Seond World War. They did not destroy it, but have taken care of it. Why do you want them back?
Because that’s what the international law says. The Hague Convention of 1907 forbids confiscating art works. These belong to Germany, Poland couldn’t have taken it then. Nowadays only Warsaw and Moscow refuse to agree with that argumentation. The Berlinka collection has an exceptional value for the Germans. If these were paintings, sculptures, no one would have made so much fuss about it. But this is about the manuscripts of our most wonderful artists, including the manuscript of our national anthem. This is our national heritage, and it just belongs to Germany.
Beethoven’s scores and Goethe’s manuscripts are Europe’s heritage. Does is matter in which European country they are placed?
I disagree. Beethoven was a German, he was writing in German. His manuscripts should be placed here. How would you feel if the manuscripts of Sienkiewicz or Mickiewicz were in German storage? Poland would be demanding them back, as firmly as we do.
The Germans seem to forget that they had themselves been destroying Polish collections. The SS were burning the collections of the libraries of Warsaw for days.

We are not forgetting. We have always been saying that destroying the Polish culture the Germans have committed terrible crimes. However the attitude of Nazi Germany, the large-scale disregard to international law, cannot be an example for other countries. The Ukrainians have returned our works of art, and we had been plundering and exterminating them too. Kiev acknowledges that this is the law.
Poland thinks that Berlinka and other German collections are substitute restitution. You have destroyed our works of art worth of 20 billion dollars – we are taking yours then. That’s fair.
I don’t agree with this opinion. There isn’t such solution in the international law. Besides, Poland had renounced her claims of restitution from Germany in 1953, which was repeated in the treaty of 1970.
But it was the Soviet Union that forced Poland renounce these claims! And it was Moscow, who received compensation money from Germany after the war. Passing only some leftovers to Poland.
But you can say Poland received one fourth of the territories of the German Reich. I cannot accept the argument that what was signed during the communism doesn’t apply today. Thank God that system collapsed, but the Polish state continues to exist, and law is law.
Most of the 180.ooo German works of art taken over after the war are in Russia. Russia doesn’t want to give it back to you either, nevertheless German press only attacks Warsaw. Why?
Because people can’t understand why we are not able to come to an agreement with a country that we are in friendship with, with which we are in NATO and the EU. We can’t come to an agreement although we’ve been negotiating for 15 years now.
Did you come to any joint conclusions during the negotiations?
No, although we continued the talks. Once in Poland, once in Germany. Unfortunately in 2005 Poland broke off the talks. We were not given any reasons. The subject was just cut.
Maybe because Germans all those years have been demanding everything, that Poland refused in advance. Wouldn’t it be better to found an institution, for instance in Wrocław, a European city with a Polish-German history, and deposit Berlinka there?
Why not? Such solution was never excluded. But both parties need to seek the solution together. And for the last two years Poland doesn’t want to.

—————————————————————-

C O M M E N T
by Włodzimierz Kalicki
Gazeta Wyborcza daily

A burgler breaks into our house. Whatever he was capable of carrying – he had taken out and stolen. At the end he set fire to our house, and the rest of our treasures perished in the fire. When he was running away, he lost his coat.
Years gone by, he comes with a generous proposal: if you can still find in my apartment anything that I stole from you, I can give it back to you. But on one condition: you’ll give me back the coat I lost. And don’t mention the things I burned – that doesn’t exist any more.

A farce? Not only. This is the newest line of German argumentation: if Warsaw gives us back Berlinka and air crafts collections, we’ll give them back whatever we still have in our storages of the things we robbed from Poland.

What about the treasures of the Polish cultural heritage, that – in large part – were being destroyed in a planned, organised fashion? German negotiator thinks that it doesn’t have anything to do with the return of Berlinka.

Poland will not agree for that.

Any potential return of Berlinka is possible only as a response to Germany’s compensation for destroying Polish cultural treasures. The compensation could, for instance, have the form of a foundation. A foundation seeking, around the world, and buying off, the works of art that were stolen from Poland by the Germans; a foundation that would also promote Polish-German joint cultural initiatives.

Nudging one another will not bring us closer to solving this problem. Only a reasonable compromise, that the public opinion in Poland and Germany will accept, will let this outrageous row end. The outrage is evidently caused by Germany.

* * *


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“On what Poles and Jews don’t like to remember”

2 06 2007

Note from the blog’s editor: I decided to translate this text after having read comments posted to THIS (click) article. I would like to thank Nemeczek. All texts on this website, apart from this one, are current media reports.

Author: Adam Michnik (editor-in-chief of Gazeta Wyborcza daily, former leader of anti-communist opposition, human rights activist, Pole and Jew)
Source: dialog.org. (Lecture given in July 1995 in Krakow, on a conference entitled “Polish remembrance – Jewish remembrance”, first published in Tygodnik Powszechny of 16th July 1995)
Translation: MoPoPressReview (beta version)

* * *

The problem of Jewish remembrance of Poland is anti-Semitism. But the problem of Polish remembrance, is that Poles often encounter hostility from Jews.

My roots

My perspective is very specific, and that is why I reluctantly express my views on that mater. I always have a sense that my status is unclear. The status of Pole of Jewish origin rather than a Polish Jew. Moreover, such a Pole, who very much wants to be a Jew for anti-Semites and who always tells them “I am a Jew”. This is that specific kind of Pole. I don’t have complexes in pointing to anti-Semitism in Poland when I see it. That is why I am a Pole. This is my national pride, and my cultural identity. If I have done anything good in my life, I have done it within the Polish culture.

At the same time I have the feeling, forgive me my egocentricity, that all my grandparents died in Holocaust. No one asked them whether they were Poles, Jews or perhaps Ukrainians. It was decided for them that they were Jewish and that they had to die. It is my duty to repeat “I am a Jew”. Otherwise, I would be spitting on the ashes of my murdered family. And therefore I am a strange kind of Pole, who identifies with Poland, who doesn’t have any other identity nor cultural nor moral, nor ideological, but also who whenever hears anti-Semitic cliché, says “I am a Jew”. I hope I will have enough determination to keep doing so until the end of my life.

What our Jewish friends don’t remember about

When I repeatedly wonder where does such dramatic tension in Polish-Jewish relations come from, I notice that Jewish publicists don’t talk with that passion about any other nation but Poland. Not about Germans, not about Russians, not about Ukrainians. Why? Where does it come from? I think this is the unrequited love mechanism.
When we analyse the documents of Jews living in Poland – letters, diaries, and other documents – what we see in them is the love to the Polish ethos, to the Polish culture, to the Polish system of values. And that love was rejected. If I may, I will risk a thesis: the tension, the drama, the hurting on the Jewish side is the result of unrequited love mechanism. No one hates a man, like rejected wife or lover. And I think that is why there is the taboo in the Polish side.

Stanisław Krajewski wrote somewhere, that for two nations which see themselves as chosen nations, it is very difficult to coexist. We have had our Messianism, and Jews have had theirs. Jewish rabbi from United States, Mr Klenicki, said wisely that in the Polish-Jewish dialogue there are a lot of mistakes and vices on the Polish side, but on the Jewish side there is something what you could call “triumphalism of pain”: which means that only we, the Jews, have the right to pain, only we have the right to be the object of compassion as sufferers. While this is a perspective, which Poles will never accept. Poles have had their Auschwitz. Poles have had their executions, have had their martyrdom. To expect that the Poles will forget about this, is to not understand the essence of the Polish nation’s spirit.

I would also like to reply to several remarks that Mr Jean Kahn, made speaking before me. I see nothing strange in the fact that during a mass a Catholic bishop talks about the suffering and agony of Christ, that in every speech a bishop talks about Jesus Christ – because that is what the Catholic religion is about. And I see nothing strange in the fact that Polish bishops do not want to talk about responsibility for the Jews’ disaster in the joint letter with German bishops. Because whatever you can say about anti-Semitism in Poland and within Polish Catholicism, and you can say a lot, you cannot compare and name responsibility of Polish bishops for Polish Catholics’ anti-Semitism alongside the German bishops’ responsibility for the German Catholics’ participation in Holocaust. These are two very different things.

And one more remark to Jean Kahn. When you create an image of allegedly only country, with concentration camps during the war, and pogroms after the war, the whole thing perfectly clicks together: Poles are a specific nation, which just dreams to persecute Jews. And when I hear such a thing, I am very afraid of it, for hundred of reasons. But three are the most important. First: because it’s a lie. Second: because it’s not good to stick to lies. Third: I went through this subject in the Balkans, what people in Croatia say about Serbs, and what people in Serbia say about Croats. So all of this is just untrue.

Need for Church’s voice and a certain kind of sensitivity

I am not going to spare our Jewish friends unpleasant truths. But we have to remember about the other side too, and here I would like to be very frank. So when we think about where do anti-Semitic slogans come from in Poland, then at least partial answer has to be clear. Although the existence of “Tygodnik Powszechny” weekly, although Jerzy Turowicz, although the priest professor Tischner, the Polish Church hasn’t yet come clear with its fault for anti-Semitism. That single pastoral letter, which no one even remembers, is not enough. And you have to say very clearly that there is one institution in Poland, only one, and it is the Catholic Church, which can and has to say it clearly, and painfully frankly, that anti-Semitism is a sin, a sin which you have to confess, and that everyone who commits anti-Semitic propaganda sins. Everyone who shouts “Gas the Jews” needs to know they have committed a sin against the Holy Spirit. You cannot be silent when faced with anti-Semitic language. Underestimating silence is a sign of permission.

I would also like to briefly talk about a specific aspect of Polish-Jewish relations, for our Jewish brothers as I think, not quite clear. Romain Rollan in “Jean Christopher”, Maria Dąbrowska in “Dzienniki” reflect on such a phenomenon: how does it happen that Jews in France, in Poland, try to be better French patriots then the French and in Poland better patriots then the Polish. These questions seem anti-Semitic, and at first are inconceivable. But hear I would like to address our friend, Mr Gershon Zohar, Israel’s ambassador: what would be the reaction of Israeli elites, if suddenly their Israeli literature was stormed by a mass of wonderful Palestinian poets, writing in Hebrew, and who are better poets then all Israeli poets? Wouldn’t that have caused some confusion within the public opinion in Israel? Here I want to somehow appeal to the sensitivity. I know this is not simple. Everything, which is new, is often shocking. Why does someone of different roots, different background, should suddenly be a star of Polish literature. He, who came from ghetto and not me who came from country estate? This is one of the phenomenons of the Inter-war period (1918-1939). I am not justifying, I am just explaining that this is a real problem, encountered by everyone of us.

Think before you accuse

Within the polish spirituality the Jewish subject is still basically taboo. Of course it is not a taboo for Polish anti-Semites, who keep repeating that the Jews are guilty for everything. It is a taboo for everything that is good and noble in Polish culture. Polish culture cannot cope with this, because it cannot cope with what professor Jan Błoński described first, and what I will name using my own ineffectual words – the Polish culture cannot cope with the phenomenon of “unfaulty fault”. Because it is not the Poles’ fault that Holocaust was on Polish soil. Yes, it is the Poles’ fault that anti-Semitism, pogroms and discrimination were here. But it is not the Poles’ fault that Hitler built concentration camps here, in which he murdered the whole Jewish nation. But this happened on Polish eyes. And a normal Pole, also a Pole of Jewish descent, cannot cope with this. How can we? Of course thank God for people like Władydsław Bartoszewski, but basically we were all leading normal lives and suddenly we closed our eyes because we couldn’t cope.

I cannot cope with this myself. If I was in a war situation: would I take two people to my apartment, who speak bad Polish, whom I don’t know, who stand out, whom probably my neighbours will identify, and for me helping them my wife and my 7-year-old son will die.. So I cannot cope with this, and I thank God it was not me who had to make such decisions. But I know one thing, and I agree with what minister Bartoszewski has said: that you cannot accuse people, due to the fact they have been afraid. Marek Edelman is of course right, when he says that in extreme situations giving up equals guilt. But he is allowed to say that, because he survived the hell of ghetto. However none of us has the right to say that, us who didn’t live through this. And who says that, is commiting a political manipulation, for very dirty reasons.

The stereotype of Pole vs Yalta

I have been reflecting many times, why in the world there is no such stereotype, that Russians are anti-Semites. There is no such stereotype. Or why today in Israel it is said that Holocaust was done by Nazis not by the Germans? It’s not that Poles didn’t have their fascists. We did. Every nation has them. And the fact that Hitler didn’t find here any Quisling or Laval I don’t see as some Polish merit. He probably would have found if he looked for. But it is a different matter. People are talking around the world about the Poles as anti-Semites, although they didn’t have their Laval or Brasillach, and they aren’t talking like that about the French, who had. Why? Because there had to be some way to justify Yalta. So that the West could say to themselves “There was such a nation, that did fight Hitler from the first day of war, but it was a dreadful nation, intolerant, and they have done much evil to the Jews”. This nation was then sold in Yalta to Stalin, and there had to be found a way to justify oneself for that. And it was very easy to say: Poles are such terrible anti-Semites, that giving them freedom would have meant that they would be doing pogroms. However Russia was then too powerful, to accuse it in such a way.

Here I see the harm done to Poland, and I identify with this harm. I am one of those publicists, who tell the worst things to their own nation. And maybe it legitimises me, to say here what I think, about the meanness that is being done and was being done to Poland. And there weren’t many people like Alain Finkielkraut. When Lanzmann accused Andrzej Wajda of anti-Semitism because of his film about Korczak, Alain Finkielkraut said that if Wajda is anti-Semite, then he is anti-Semite too. There weren’t many people like him, and I would like to thank him today.

We didn’t have the right to say anything

I think we will never have enough time to pay tribute to those, who during occupation were helping the death-facing Jews. Never. And a discussion on whether there was a lot of them or little is senseless. Whatever was their number, their existence is an empirical evidence of God’s existence. Because in times like those, to bring oneself to this kind of heroism means to be someone absolutely exceptional. And we can only pay them tribute and thank God that he sent them.
But I should say one more thing. An anthology of underground, resistance press, connected with the Warsaw Ghetto Rising was published. It has to said clearly: yes, in our Polish resistance there were any heroic attitudes, and that press proves that. But there also were foul, and anti-Semitic attitudes, and these weren’t rare. And the fact that we weren’t able to settle this tiny bit of our history is our moral responsibility for what is going on today. Such texts exist too. I agree with what Alain Finkielkraut had said, that this is a family secret, that this is the secret of my, your, every family on this soil, Polish family, Jewish family and Ukrainian family. And basically it is hard to live normally knowing what our parents and brothers went through.

An important element of that family secret, is what Mrs. Simone Veil said about the brutal manipulation of the communists (March 1968), who incorporated it, and then it became very hard to modify it, due to censorship and dictatorship. It is said sometimes, that it reflected the views of the Poles. Maybe. I don’t know. I know that no one asked Poles. No one has given them a chance, to democratically choose anti-Semitism. They all were gagged. And when they could finally open their mouths, it turned ambiguous.

It is not that the subject is difficult and painful, but the majority would like to annihilate, reject anti-Semitism, I wouldn’t say that. Too ofte I hear anti-Semitic slogans. But on the other hand, how many parliament seats did the parties with anti-Semite views get? How many? Zero. Zero seats. In sauch a reportedly anti-Semitic country. No seats with current electoral law, when every idiot who could scream loud enough got a seat.

Politics and anti-Semitism in Poland

I am the last person who wants to falsify anything. Different times, we have freedom and sovereignty. So: were there people who reported Jews? Yes, we have t say it clearly – there were. But it would be indecent not to mention underground resistance courts’ death sentences on them – which were usually executed. There were the underground courts, these people were condemned and their crimes were condemned. In what sense I feel responsible for these people? Me, who identifies with Poland and Polish culture? In the same sense, like I feel responsible for those Polish people who everyday murder or rape. I can’t be responsible for people, with whom I fight whole my life, whose enemy I am. I can take the fault for all my actions, but I can’t be responsible for the actions of Polish communists, who closed me in jail, because I didn’t want to share their faults. And we have the obligation to make that distinction.
Poland was an enslaved nation, it was a conquered country, and you cannot talk about Polish anti-Semitism from before the war, which was disgusting and vile, together with that dry pogrom in 1968. Because the dry pogrom, was in fact a pogrom on Polish democratic Intelligentsia under anti-Semitic slogans. It was then when that weird phenomenon has started, the phenomenon of anti-Semitism in a country without Jews, anti-Semitism that wasn’t really aiming at the Jewish community, but at the polish democratic and freedom aspirations. I will say sarcastically: normal healthy anti-Semitism is such anti-Semitism that says “Adam Michnik is a Jew, and that’s why he’s hooligan”. Whereas the Polish refined anti-Semitism says “Adam Michnik is a hooligan, which means he probably is a Jew”.

I say that in Poland you get nominated to be a Jew. Well, I have deserved those offences, which I am not spared by the anti-Semitic press. But for what sins for example Hanna Suchocka was declared a Jew? She was good for everyone and so self-restrained. But it only takes to know the alphabe, to make someone a Jew on the political scene.
We will be talking about these matters for a long time. I am comforted however, that today in Krakow, although we argue radically, we talk about about painful things knowing that our adversaries too have the good will to reach the truth.

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