Expelled from Tschenstochau

15 03 2007

Source: Wprost (weekly) of 18th March 2007
Author: Piotr Cywiński in Berlin

* * *

German law allows the number of the expelled to be endlessly multiplied
‘A Russian dragged my sister-in-law out of the room. We heard shots. Then he returned. We we praying as he was shooting the grandmother, then my father, who only managed to say “auf wiedersehen” to my mum and us. My sister was sitting on the side. She was holding two children in her arms. He shot them too. Then my aunt. He wanted to take me. When i struggled, he hit me with the gun butt, cut my trousers down and raped me. Then he went away, but shortly came back and shot the baby in a pram’. This is a fragment Christel Jolitz’s memories published by the German Bild daily. This popular tabloid had published the real-life tragical stories before the public ARD channel broadcast the film entitled Die Flucht (Escape), by the public ARD channel. The characters and the plot in the film were fictional. The only real thing about it was the great exodus of Germans before the incoming Soviet Red Army.

Although a record number of viewers watched Die Flucht, the film is not a work of art. The screenplay unfolds a story about love between a German countess and a French POW doing forced labour on an estate in Eastern Prussia. The story is not very convincing, however it is set in the background that reflects facts. As Erika Steinbach, the president of the Federation of the Expelled (BdV), rightfully points out, the reality was more cruel and tragic. The 46-year-old director Kai Wessel says with pride, that he finally said out loud what had been kept in silence for 60 years. However, that reputed-silence surrounding the 12 million Germans, who run away fearing revenge or were resettled, is just a plain marketing trick.

Hitler’s last victims
There have been millions of pages of academic theses and literary works written on the subject of escape or resettlements in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1949 a Ministry for the Expelled was formed, which existed until 1969. Museums remembering the little Heimats are scattered around the country, as well as Landsmannshafts receiving public funding, affiliating former residents even of those cities like Tschenstohau (Częstochowa), where German minorities before the war did not exist. And there is the powerful Bund der Vertriebenen (Federation of the Expelled). First movies about old lands and the fate of Germans were made in the 50s, for example Grün ist die Heide, or the later produced Death of My Father. Only in the last few months we could see on silver or tv screens: Escape and expulsion, trilogy Exile, Hitler’s Last Victims (on the tragedy of the Wilhelm Güstloff ship), two-episode Dresden (on bombing) and two films on the last days of Hitler’s life.

Talking about a silence surrounding expulsions is as nonsense, as the German politicians’ assurances that Erika Steinbach is powerless. Nota bene the problem does not only come down to her, although she actually personifies it well. The sole fact of appointing her in 1998 to the office of president of the Federation of the Expelled was a provocation. Since her parents were nazi occupants who settled in Rumia near the city of Gdynia during the war. BdV is full of people like her. And it is legitimised by an awkward definition in the statue for the expelled and refugees (Gesetz über die Angelegenheiten der Vertriebenen und Flüchtinge). It says:

Expelled is the one, who as a German citizen or a person belonging to the German nation, had had their place of residence in the German eastern lands, which had been previously under foreign administration or on the lands of the German Reich, on December 31st 1937, and had lost it in relation to the occurrences of The Second World War due to expulsion or escape’.

In accordance with to that definition, “expelled” in Germany multiply in numbers – and some estimates say – their number has risen to 15 million people. BdV membership cards are given also to the grandchildren of the resettled or economic migrants of recent years. Politicians seem not to see this, like they similarly do not see the links between BdV and neonazi movements, which were pointed out couple times. Paul Latussek, who used to be Erika Steinbach’s deputy, was also ruling the extreme right Free Citizens Federation (BfB), while his outrageous remarks on Holocaust cost him the job of lecturer at University of Ilmenau.

Few years ago Klaus Bednarz asked a question in his tv show “Monitor” ‘What does the multimillion budget funding for Bdv go for?’ The funds are aimed at helping to preserve cultural tradition, and historical inheritance of the expelled, and they go into destruction’. Maybe this is a coincidence, but soon after Bednarz lost his job at the television, and Erika Steinbach was chosen for the ZDF public channel’s board, and to thegoverning board of CDU, the party currently governing Germany. And then for the president of the CDU/CSU Human Rights Working Group at the German parliament. And some other lucrative posts. When not so long ago, in a tv debate with Steinbach, I quoted a letter sent by BdV members accusing her that she ‘is making political career using the resettled’ and calling her to ‘resign as soon as possible’ , she replied to me with a cynical smile, that she cannot complain for lack of support. Steinbach is very selfcertain. The main argument she directs at her political opponents is the electoral blackmail. Large parties are afraid of losing votes.

Rewriting History
Steinbach uses the good old rule, that a lie told over and over becomes truth. When she speaks, things start to take different proportions. Causes become smaller, the outcomes become bigger. The number of “expelled” increases too. During the expultions and escape 500-600.000 Germans died. She keeps talking about 2 million. It’s rewriting history. No serious researcher confirms these numbers. Who gives those numbers only wants to make foreign policy with it, and gather attention – says Ingo Haar, historian from Berlin.

Research conducted by the Federal Republic f Germany in 1974 conluded that there were 400.000 victims on the East from river Oder and 100.000 in Czechoslovakia. In the 80s a joined Czech-German commission, after doing deep research, has lowered the number of victims to 15-16.000 and agreed that the false numbers from the 50s will not be repeated any more. Stainbach remains deaf for these arguments.

Steinbach über alles
For bad Polish-German relations Steinbach blames the Polish parties, which she compared to neonazis. When a Wehrmacht’s officer’s daughter, born at the end of the war, who after 50 years voted against the border treaty with Poland, says that – it carries some extra meaning. (…) It is difficult to count her provocations: from attempts to block Poland’s entry to the EU until it returns the estates and pays compensations to the expelled, to outrageous remarks about “not consulting the fitting of buildings in Warsaw with Germans, who tore the city down.”

It raises a question, is one person more importaint for the Germany than good relations with a neighbouring country, or are her views more common? German politicians seem like they were acting according to “Steinbach über alles” principle. It is not needed to hear her apology. What is needed is a discussion among Germans themselves, what are they going to do with BdV-anachronism? Stefan Hambura, attorney from Berlin, thinks that the current Polish-German crisis is the last chance to close the the issue of of escape, resettlement, “expulsion”, and compensations. He suggests a final solution to this problem by proper acts, that should be attached to the European Constitution.

Will German politicians find enough strong will to deal with this inconvenient ballast from the past? One thing is certain: the way of solving the problem of BdV will be a gauge, that will tell us how sincere their conciliatory intentions are.

* * *

If you enjoyed this post why not visit Polandian, a collaborative blog on Poland.



5 responses

7 06 2007
Erich Mannstein

So no one was ethnically cleansed out of Silesia, East Prussia or the Sudeten Land. Everyone left of their own free will in an orderly humane fashion. And of course it’s justified because they were all Nazis anyway including 2 year old infants.Tell that to my family that lived in Hindenburg near Gleiwitz who lost all their possesions and almost ended up in a Polish concentration camp after the war run by non other than Shlomo Morel. Morel by the way was wanted by the Polish state prosecutor to stand trial for murder and crimes against humanity.

You ought to read the some history or talk to people that went through this ordeal before writing such remarkable nonsense. You’re nothing less than a denier of the worst ethnic cleansing in modern history.

Give me a break!

7 06 2007

First Erich, please note that I am not the author of the article. This blog contains articles published in leading Polish media and I only translate them. Therefore I think it would be better to discuss about the article, not about me.

Second, I don’t see that this article denies that relocations, or expulsions took place. It only denies to call it expulsions. It also doesn’t say it was humane. Whether it was justified, it is a matter for discussion – but the article doesn’t say anything about that either.

This article is about four things basically:
1. German law, which gives the status of “expelled” to people who according to the author shuouldn’t have that status.
2. Erika Steinbach and her status in Germany (she is very well known in Poland and very unpopular). It is noted in the article that she voted against Border-Treaty between Poland and Germany, which indicates that she would like to reclaim the former German lands – this stirs up emotions in Poland.
3. Images of expulsion in popular culture.
4. General shift in German attitude to war, and a tendency to forget about that they were perpetrators.

Just to remind: expulsions were decided between Stalin, Churchill and Truman during their Potsdam Conference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potsdam_Conference
General article on expulsions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_Germans_after_World_War_II

I understand your perspective, I do. I just want you to see things with the Polish perspective. It wasn’t the Nazi party that invaded and occupied Poland, it was the German state, which was supported by vast majority of its citizens (who even chose Hitler in democratic elections). Poles were seen as subhuman, and treated accordingly. have you seen reprints the signs posted in those days “No entrance for Jews, Poles and dogs”? Many of Germans profited directly from the Poles’ slave labour.
It is impossible to outnumber the German crimes in Poland
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanisation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kulturkampf
Moreover, it were the Germans who first used expulsions, to cleanse North and West Poland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_Poles_by_Germany

And a quote “There was an expressed fear of disloyalty of Germans in Silesia and Pommerania based in part on the pro-Nazi activities of members of the German ethnic group during the war and even after the end of the war.”

Therefore you should understand, that there was an unimaginable resentment towards the Germans after the war. Although my grandmother was doing slave labour for the Germans, she always said that there were good people and bad people both among Poles and Germans, she understood that Germans were part of a system and that an individual had a limited possibility of doing something. They had orders etc. But there were unimaginable amounts of cruelty that didn’t have to happen. However I don’t think everyone in those days would agree with her. Not to mention the Red Army. Poles were too expelled their eastern

I am not saying that the expulsions were innocent and justified. When you read though these masses of materials you can imagine what people who went through that felt. You can imagine the drive for revenge, when everything in your country has been demolished, the elites killed together with 20% of general population, your cities tore down. It were the Germans who invaded Poland and who did it all. Therefore people in Poland get very irritated when they hear about Erka Steinbach and BdV because they feel that history is being reversed now in Germany. That the perpetrators want to be seen as victims. Erika Steinbach, who was born in Gdynia during the German occupation, in Gdynia a city from which POLES WERE EXPELLED during the war, Erika Steinbach who cannot call herself an expellee in any way, Erika Steinbach representing such an organisation not only does not have any credibility in Poland, Erika Steinbach as BdV presidentin is an insult to all the victims of German occupation.

27 10 2007

Though lady!

She just won the year long fight for her center for the expellees.
It will now be build in Berlin!

Her hard and relentless work made sure to move the sad issue of the german
Vertriebenen (my family too) into the focus. For that she earned our thanks!

Congratulations and hats off to her!

19 03 2008

thank you for translating this article. I’m afraid that the two previous responses indicate the state of things on the ground in Germany when it comes to Steinbach and her projects. As you noted, Erika Steinbach’s parents (her father was an officer in the Luftwaffe) were awarded an apartment in Gdynia FROM WHICH A POLISH FAMILY HAD BEEN FORCIBLY EXPELLED. A bit difficult to swallow that tidbit and hear this woman out on the issue of “expulsions.”

3 07 2009
Grace Cummins

Is there any way you can give me Stefan Hambura email or address because my father who lives in New Jersey has read in the polish paper that Stefan Hambura a attorney in Berlin is handling cases for polish people that were in concentrations camps.
My father was in Dachau concentration camp January 1943 to 1945 .

I would appreciate any information you can give me so I can contact Stefan Hambura.

Thank you

Grace Cummins

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